Aeration brings water and air in close contact in order to remove dissolved gases (such as carbon dioxide) and oxidizes dissolved metals such as iron, hydrogen sulfide, and volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). Aeration is often the first major process at a treatment plant. An Aeration system is used in ponds and lakes and what is essential is to increase the dissolved oxygen content of the water throughout the lake and pond. This aeration can be done several ways: by injecting pure oxygen, mechanically agitating or mixing the water, or injecting air. An aeration system is usually in the form of a fountain that is in the middle of the lake or pond. If there is a pond or lake that does not have an aeration system, it can greatly benefit from having one. Here are some of the benefits to having an aeration system a lake or pond. There are also cool new pumps that produce nano bubbles that work on the chemistry of the water by attaching to particles in the water.
Benefits of Aeration
Aeration is not the cure-all for the problems a lake and pond can face. It can be misused, and when it is, it will not help, but hinder the problems. It is important to have a professional analyze and help where needed. When aeration is used properly, it can help and improve the water and habitat.
Increase Aquatic Habitat
Benefits of aeration in ponds and lakes. When there is aeration, the plant and animal life will thrive because of the oxygen that will be constantly flowing through the water. This will also help prevent fish kills. When the plants at the bottom of the lake are getting a good amount of oxygen, they will grow healthier and the fish that eat the plants will have a good amount of food that is growing.
This will be even more beneficial for warm water fish. They tend to struggle in an oxygen-deprived habitat because they require an adequate amount of dissolved oxygen levels. An aeration system will help the oxygen levels of the lake to further better the habitat of the warm water fish.
Stratification can be created and be problematic for the natural resources and environmental managers. Stratification is when the lake is separated into layers of different temperatures. Having an aeration system will circulate the water so there are no more separated layers that have different temperatures. Common techniques for destratification are air injection and mechanical mixing.
When there is oxygen deprived water, the plant life at the bottom will release different gases and metals that create water quality problems. When there is an aeration system, the water quality will greatly improve because oxygen will circulate throughout the whole lake, including the bottom sediments. The water quality will be enhanced by stabilizing the pH, removing carbon dioxide, and alkalinity. The more problems a lake has the more treatment will be needed. An aeration system like a fountain will decrease the amount of treatments that are needed to help the problems in a lake or pond. Clean Streams, Rivers and Lakes personnel are experts at deciding if this would be a good part of a solution for your pond or lake and suggest the proper equipment to use and where.
Controlling Harmful Algae Blooms. Harmful Algae Blooms (HAB) such as Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) represents a nuisance in water where excess nutrients and growing conditions exist. HAB’s can excrete hazardous toxins and produce toxins that create drinking water problems, limit use of beaches, create fish kills and odors that affect residents and visitors. The result places economic burdens on communities. This is a serious problem nationally and over 60 percent of freshwater bodies are impaired, affecting some 80,000 miles of rivers and streams and 2.5 million acres of lakes, reservoirs, and ponds, and coastal seawater.
Long term, key nutrients need to be lowered, such as phosphorus (P) and nitrates (N). In the interim, Pro-Biotic water quality treatments can minimize the effects of HAB. It is known that HABs can be controlled using bacillus and other bacteria; however, such treatment requires multiple treatments that are not practical for larger water bodies. MetaMateria’s Bio-Lair and PO4 Sponge products are especially effective in reducing nutrients needed to support HAB. PO4 Sponge removes more reactive phosphorus than other products and Bio-Lair sustains high bacteria levels that break down existing algae blooms and keep them from reforming.
Bio-Lair is a porous ceramic product with exceptionally high amounts of surface for bacteria reproduction. It has 100 times more surface than plastic products. This allows large populations of bacteria to develop that are 5 times higher than normal and these will out-compete algae for nutrients. Blooms break down and do not reform.
Bioremediation is widely used in nature and in waste treatment systems to remove organics, N, and even biologically tie up soluble P. A key to using Bio-Lair for HAB control is selecting the right combination of beneficial bacteria with high bacterial count for a quick start-up.
Bacteria are known to help control algae blooms and break down organics in bottom sediments. High concentrations of enzymatic bacillus and pseudomonas bacteria are effective in breaking down existing blooms. Bacillus bacteria naturally form in soils and there are thousands of strains. While useful in controlling HAB, bacteria suppliers require repeated treatments throughout the algae growing season, sometimes as often as every 2 weeks. While this may be feasible for smaller ponds; it is costly and repeated treatment is impractical for larger water bodies. New bacteria have to be added regularly because the surfaces for colonization are largely on the bottom sediment, not up in the water where it is needed for HAB control. Bacillus bacteria will reduce sediment thickness (sometimes by 12 inches/year).
Bio-Lair is packaged in nets or other custom configurations and can be located up in the water where it becomes an ideal substrate for reproduction of beneficial bacteria needed to maintain higher concentrations up in the water. This reduces a need for regular bacteria additions. HAB breaks down and does not reform, as long as the nutrients remain controlled.
Bio-Lair sustains high concentrations of the beneficial bacteria that have been used effectively with commercial bacteria blends that cost less than comparable products on the market. High concentrations of colonizable bacteria that begin working quickly. To better understand the power provided by this combination of the right bacteria blend and Bio-Lair. It is helpful to examine how these unique products work together. While many bacteria products exist, there are significant differences between the type and quantity of active colonizable bacteria available. Bacteria are one of the oldest life forms on earth and are present in virtually every environment. In fact, the number of beneficial bacteria far outweighs the number of harmful strains, such as the HAB cyanobacteria.
Bacteria are absolutely essential to the natural recycling of nutrients throughout the environment and they biologically maintain healthy water by breaking down nitrogen, carbon, and other contaminants and can even biologically incorporate some soluble P. This is nature’s way of controlling contaminants, and for a normal environment, existing bacteria are enough to do the job; however, when excess contaminants exist, such as proteins, oils or unhealthy bacteria, or when oxygen is too low, water quality suffers and supplemental bacteria can provide the extra help needed, especially when blends of bacteria can handle a broad array of contaminants, allowing water to be cleaned faster.
BIO-Lair represents a ProBiotic bacteria factory that constantly creates new bacteria on the enormous surface available. A fog of bacteria is swept into surrounding water and the high concentrations needed to control HAB can be maintained.
Depending upon the conditions, the bacteria lower nutrients in the water and breaks down organics to keep the water clear. Amazing results occur when BIO-Lair is used with the right blend of beneficial bacteria. Once treated, algae disappear in weeks and never reformed. New bacteria treatment is done each Spring when the water warms.
Similar results in controlling algae are found in treatment of fish and shrimp ponds where nutrient levels are particularly high. Bio-Lair used with bacillus bacteria was able to control algae blooms in aquaculture ponds with no repeat additions of bacteria needed. HAB in other water bodies. Economics of treatment depend upon the specific application but are much less than chemicals.
Bio-Lair and PO4 Sponge are trademarks and products of MetaMateria, Inc. Clean Streams, Rivers, and Lakes uses these in custom configurations designed for your specific application.
Aquaritin is a patented water treatment solution made of nano-scale micronutrients (5-100nm) required for multiplication of the ubiquitous and beneficial diatoms in any water body. Aquaritin is all natural and contains Si, Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, B, S, Mo, P, K and Co.
Through the introduction of copious diatom blooms, this revolutionary nano-scale formula significantly increases the amount of dissolved oxygen while kick starting the natural biological cycle already occurring in waterways.
How Does Aquaritin Work To Balance Biological Filtration?
Aquaritin causes a controlled and sustainable growth of beneficial diatoms.
Diatoms are special types of algae that live inside 'glass houses' - they have hard outer shells made of silicon and oxygen, the same elements that make up glass. These outer casings are made of two half cylinders that fit together like a jewelry box. Inside this shell is a single celled organism that photosynthesizes, releasing Oxygen.
The Oxygen is used by aerobic bacteria to break down organic matter.
Higher DO levels result in tangible changes like cleaner water, reduction in BOD, lower coliform levels, elimination of foul odor, reduction in mosquito colonies in water and healthier aquatic life. Aquaritin is a substitute for algae control and nutrient reduction products.
Silica is a valuable part of the Aquaritin Bio Filter Process
How does CPRL Automate Adding Aquaritin to drainage, streams, rivers and lakes?
CPRL has designed systems identical to agricultural dosing systems where we can meter and time the dosing of the proper amount of Aquaritin to match the flow rates for drainage, streams, rivers and lakes. Higher end models include remote communications, cell, phone and text feedback.
Why Encourage Diatom Algae Growth?
Diatoms are responsible for almost one fourth of the oxygen produced on Earth.
Due to their glass like structure, they need less light to photosynthesize and therefore photosynthesize faster and earlier in the day, out-competing filamentous algae like harmful Blue Green Algae (BGA) or green algae for nutrients such as N and P.
Highly mobile, Zooplankton feed on the diatoms and the fish feed on zooplankton thus completing the natural food chain in a healthy water body. The organics exit the water in the form of fish biomass as the biological filter is improved.
What Are The Specific Changes That Aquaritin Causes In Water?
1 liter of Aquaritin releases 200 to 1000 kgs of Oxygen, Produces 200 to 1000 kgs of Diatoms, Consumes 16 to 80 kgs of N and 2 to 12 kgs of P, Consumes 300 to 1400 kgs of Co2 and thus will significantly increase the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water while balancing the biological aquatics.
What can Aquaritin inexpensively treat?
Lakes, Rivers, Streams, Ponds, Run-Off Drainage, Storm Drainage, Water Treatment Facilities; basically anywhere you need cleaner water.
Are There Any Toxicity, Precautions and Side Effects?
Aquaritin has been tested to be non-toxic as per APHA (2012) and OECD (1992).
Aquaritin has no impact on humans and is even safe if small amounts are consumed accidentally. Beneficial bacteria, zooplankton and fish grow in a healthy manner in lakes and water bodies dosed with Aquaritin. Overdosing will cause excess diatoms and water will turn brown from too much Diatoms, that is why we only treat under manufacturer supervision. There are no side effects when dosed in water.
Society normally wishes to maintain a reasonable level of productivity in its lakes, rivers, and estuaries and this requires the presence of modest levels of nutrients. Historically, many water bodies have progressed from low productivity or oligotrophic settings to productive mesotrophic conditions to over enriched eutrophic or hypertrophic conditions. The results are often algal or cyanobacteria mats, anoxia, and fish kill leading to greatly reduced biodiversity.
The accumulation of nutrients in a water body causes ecological imbalances and results in ‘Eutrophication’. Nutrient input causes growth of algae and weeds. If the algae and weeds are not consumed by Zooplankton and Fish, they die and decompose and the nutrients remain in the waterway.
On the other hand if the algae are consumed by Zooplankton and Fish they are transported up the food chain and hence the water remains clean and well oxygenated. The dead plant matter also accumulates as sludge on the lake bed and makes it shallower. The nutrient inputs come from sewage, agricultural runoff, storm water, etc.
The dead algae are decomposed by aerobic bacteria which use up dissolved oxygen. These bacteria increase the biological oxygen demand (BOD) of the ecosystem. Biological oxygen demand is important because it affects the amount of dissolved oxygen available to all species in an aquatic ecosystem.
A higher BOD indicates a lower availability of dissolved oxygen for Zooplankton and Fish. This lower concentration of oxygen causes many fish to suffocate, and as they die, the number of oxygen-demanding decomposers increases even more.
Phycoremediation is defined as the use of algae to remove pollutants or nutrients from the environment or to render them harmless. Algae can fix carbon-dioxide by photosynthesis and remove excess nutrients efficiently at minimal cost. In addition oxygen produced photosynthetically with algae can relieve BOD in the water. The use of micro algae for the treatment of municipal wastewater has been subject of research and development for several decades.
Oligotrophic lakes are dominated by Diatom Algae and Eutrophic lakes by Cyanobacteria. In eutrophic lakes, diatoms may dominate in winter and spring and blooms of cyanobacteria occur only in summer through autumn.
In winter and spring the water quality is generally good but deteriorates in summer and autumn due to the algal blooms. The seasonal succession of phytoplankton is depicted very well on the website Water For The World (http://waterfortheworld.net/)
Using diatoms to control water quality is a unique idea for effective, eco-friendly and cost effective lake, river, stream and pond management. It does not need any special equipment, construction and skilled manpower. It harnesses the enormous potential of diatom algae to consume nutrients rapidly and thereby control other nuisance algae like BGA and water weeds.
Sewage, fertilizer, etc., contains more of nutrients and less of micro-nutrients. Diatom algae are the last group of algae to have evolved about 200 million years ago and they are more complex than other algae and require more micro-nutrients.
Thus diatoms cannot grow once the micro-nutrients in the water are exhausted. This typically occurs by summer and is the main reason for Cyano blooms in summer and autumn. Adding micro-nutrients into waterways to enable diatoms to grow even in summer and autumn is a unique and new phyco-remediation solution.
Phosphorus (P) is a key component in modern fertilizers, added to food and beverages and to water for corrosion control. Some 80% of P is used in the fertilizer on which world agriculture depends. However, P is accumulating worldwide in water bodies and causing harmful algae blooms (HAB). These HAB degrade water quality, create toxins and deplete dissolved oxygen, allowing toxic ammonia to form, which kill marine life. HAB can also poison drinking water and limit the use for recreation. One part of P in water can grow 100 parts of Algae.
PO4 Sponge - Attractive for Both Removal and Recovery. The PO4 Sponge offers an effective way to remove soluble P from water. This is a unique, porous, high surface area material that contains iron-oxyhydroxide nano-crystals, providing an extremely large number of sites for phosphate ion sorption. The product can be regenerated and reused multiple times and P can be recovered.
The PO4 Sponge provides:
High Absorptive Capacity. Higher soluble P absorption capacity - typically more than 5 times higher as shown in the table compared with other sorptive materials. Can be used with Low and High Concentrations. Removes phosphorus at both low (< 0.2 mg/L) and high (200 mg/L) levels.
Cost Effective. Less media is needed to remove P
Long Life. Can continually remove P for years
Excellent Hydraulic Water Flow. Water easily passes through media due to interconnecting pore structure to reach absorption sites.
Can be Regenerated & Reused. Media can be regenerated and reused. This lowers an average cost by 80% versus a single usage.
Phosphorus Easily Recovered. PO4 ions removed during regeneration are recovered as precipitates (e.g. calcium phosphate).
Ther PO4 Sponge is available in different shapes and sizes, providing flexibility for use of the product in systems designed for a variety of applications. This is a highly porous material with nanocrystals of iron oxyhydroxide grown on pore surfaces. Capacity expressed in mg of PO4/gram of Fe shows that over 3,000 mg of PO4/gram of Fe is removed, considerably higher than other media.
Using PO4 Sponge
PO4 Sponge can be . . . 1. packaged as a monolith 2. used as packed beds 3. placed into moving water
1. For a single pass, the best results occur using a monolith (i), such as the cartridge shown.
2. In beds made with smaller pieces (cubes), so open spaces exist and a portion of the water bypasses the media, to recycle some discharge water which enhances P removal. Longer contact increases P removed.
3. If placed directly into water, plastic holders or open weave bags can be used to suspend media in flowing water.
PO4 Sponge Regeneration allows media to be reused, feasibly, more than 10 times due to very little mechanical or chemical degradation being observed with reuse. The percentage of P recovered after each use following regeneration is fairly consistent. In regeneration, sorbed PO4 ions are removed by circulating a base chemical (e.g. sodium hydroxide) through the PO4 Sponge .
PO4 Sponge Applications
PO4 Sponge is sold commercially for smaller applications and is being examined for other applications, where results are encouragingly positive. Field tests of PO4 Sponge are done on-site or use water obtained from commercial sites. Testing includes:
On-Site Waste Treatment (Septic) Systems containing 6 to 10 mg/L of P.
Municipal waste treatment water ranging from 2 to 4 mg/L (six different sites). Municipal Waste filtrate from sludge compactions ranging from 30 to 130 mg/L.
Agriculture runoff water containing 0.8 to 0.1 mg/L.
Lake and Stream water where P below 0.5 mg/L.
Chemical-Free swimming pools where P needs to be below 0.1 mg/L.
Industrial waste water (food processing plants) ranging from 5 to 150 mg/L.
Learn How To Remove Phosphorus from Agricultural Runoff
Cost to Remove Phosphorus:
The cost to remove P using PO4 Sponge looks attractive for many applications at both low and high P concentrations. It competes well with other absorbents, especially when P needs to be under 0.5 mg/L. As a result, the PO4 Sponge provides a simpler approach to removal that can have a lower capital and operating cost. The average price for the PO4 Sponge declines with reuse, since regeneration costs are much less than initial cost. This graph shows how the average cost is lowered with multiple use and the effect of lower media cost with volume production. After 6 uses, the average cost drops by 70% for high volume example. We will engineer custom configurations that are proven effective and aquatic friendly. Deployment can be at any discharge of polluted water and/or end flows prior to the stream or river entering a larger body of water.
PO4 Sponge is a trademark and product of MetaMateria, Inc. Clean Streams, Rivers, and Lakes uses these in custom configurations designed for your specific application.